CKD is associated with age-related decline of renal function and is highly prevalent, estimated to affect between 11% to 13% of the global population1. Approximately 90% of patients with CKD will have oral signs or symptoms, including bleeding gums, a dry mouth, candidiasis, burning mouth, abnormal taste and abnormal lip pigmentation2. Ruospo and colleagues performed a systemic review of 88 studies in 125 populations (11,340 dialysis adult patients) and reported3:
- 57% had gum disease
- 50% had dry mouth
- 20% were edentulous
- 19% had oral pain
- 25% never brushed their teeth
These factors can significantly impact on the well-being of patients with renal disease and their quality of life. For example, a tooth with dental decay and/or gum disease may be associated with pain, infection and swelling, particularly when the decay involves the nerve of the tooth and there is a dental abscess. This can cause problems with eating, drinking and swallowing. In addition, a dry mouth lacks adequate saliva to mix with food particles during the process of mastication. The dry mouth is often accompanied by an abnormal taste as well as a burning sensation. All these factors can have a significant effect on nutrition.
- Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, Hirst JA, O’Callaghan CA, Lasserson DS & Hobbs FDR. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7), e0158765. http://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0158765 (Accessed 27/03/2018).
- Oyetola EO, Owotade FJ, Agbelusi GA, Fatusi OA & Sanusi AA. Oral findings in chronic kidney disease: implications for management in developing countries. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15:24.
- Ruospo M, Palmer SC, Craig JC, Gentile G, Johnson DW, Ford PJ, Tonelli M, Petruzzi M, De Benedittis M & Strippoli GF. Prevalence and severity of oral disease in adults with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of observational studies. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2014;29(2):364375.
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